Numismatic edition, volume 2
Nizhny Novgorod 2000
In memoriam Yuri E. Pyrsov
- V. P. Lebedev
Numismatic studies by the Saratov region student and numismatist Y.E.
Study 1. The coins of Ukek
Study 2. The coins of other mints
Study 3. Amir Timur in the Golden Horde
Study 4. Numismatic puzzles
- A. V. Pachkalov
A small early 15th century hoard of silver coins of the golden horde from
the site of Selitrennoe
- N. N. Ivanov
Coin gatherings on the archaeological route
Of the Khorezm expedition in 1966
- V. P. Lebedev, O. V. Trostiansky
A hoard of Golden Horde dirhams of the first half of the XIVth century from
- J. G. Muhametshin
The coins of Mokhshi from the funds of the Bolgar state
- V. B. Klokov, V. P. Lebedev
The coin circulation of the Golden-Horde town of Beljamen
- V. P. Lebedev, V. N. Dunin
The drawings of lead seals from the archive of the Gorodets region student
y. K. Miatov
Primary analysis of images on the published lead seals from Gorodets
- V. P. Lebedev
Seven unpublished coins of the Crimean khanate of the 15–17th centuries
- P. N. Petrov, V. A. Kalinin
The hoards of kufic dirhams
- P. N. Petrov
Using the macroanalysis in the study of the hoards of kufic coins of the
8–12th centuries, estimating its applicability and possibilities
- B. D. Kochnev
A group of coins from a hoard containing the 11th century coins of
- Y. V. Studitsky, V. P. Lebedev
Vassal coinage of the 70s of the 11th century — the final stage of the
monetary system of the Shaddadid emirate of Ganja
- V. N. Nastich
Almaty — the 13th century mint
- O. V. Trostiansky
The western kopeks with the names of Ivan IV and Feodor Ivanovich
(to the problem of the minting place)
- V. A. Malanin
Russian silver coins of 1825 — the first coins of Nikolay I
NUMISMATIC STUDIES BY THE SARATOV REGION STUDENT
AND NUMISMATIST Y. E. PYRSOV (1930-1996)
V. P. Lebedev
The present essay contains a selection of items offered by Yuri Efremovich
in his per-sonal correspondence: "pioneer" attributions of the unedited
types of Jujid coins, new solutions of some doubtful definitions and, I
dare assert, the opening of a new page in the his-tory of the Golden Horde
numismatics. Perhaps some of the attributions suggested by Yuri Efremovich
would not become an "ultimate verity", but such is the destiny of most
trial-blazer’s solutions. Let us do justice to his enormous diligence,
bravery of his thought and outstanding flair for deciphering the numismatic
Study 1. THE COINS OF UKEK
No.1. Toqtu Bek Khan. Dirham. No date. AR. Fig. 1/1.
No.2. Anonymous dirham. AR. Fig. 1/2.
No.3. Anonymous pul. AE. Fig. 1/3.
No.4. Mahmud Khan. Dirham. Date uncertain. AR. Fig. 1/4.
Study 2. THE COINS OF OTHER MINTS
No.5. Anonymous dirham, temp. Mangu Temur. Saray, 671 AH. AR. Fig. 1/5.
No.6. Toqta Khan. Half dirham. Mint and date uncertain. AR. Fig. 1/6.
No.7. Anonymous pul. Mokhshi, 733 AH. AE. Fig. 1/7.
No.8. Anonymous pul. Mokhshi, 745 AH. AE. Fig. 1/8.
No.9. Muhammad Khan. Dirham. Haji Tarkhan, 823 AH. AR. Fig. 1/9.
Study 3. AMIR TIMUR IN THE GOLDEN HORDE
No numismatic evidence to the presence of Amir Timur in the Golden Horde has
been known thus far. Still the like coins prove to exist, and Yuri
Efremovich had the luck to dis-cover some of them.
No.10. Mahmud Khan and Timur Guragan. Dirham. Haji Tarkhan, no date. AR.
Besides this unique piece, Yuri Efremovich has come across important data on
other coins struck under Timur.
No.11. Amir Timur. Pul. No mint, undated. AE. Fig. 2/11.
No.12. Anonymous pul. Saray, 85 AH? AE. Fig. 2/12.
Study 4. NUMISMATIC PUZZLES
It is not so seldom that the Jujid coins, even those well-known and
published long before, contain separate words and sometimes whole legends
that remain unread, or else the suggested reading does not satisfy the
numismatists. Yuri Efremovich was eager to puzzle over such problematic
items, and some of his solutions are encountered with in our
A SMALL EARLY 15TH CENTURY HOARD OF SILVER COINS OF THE GOLDEN HORDE FROM
THE SITE OF SELITRENNOE
A. V. Pachkalov
A small hoard of Jujid silver coins dated to the first decade of the 15th
century was unearthed in autumn of 1997 in the site near village
Selitrennoe, in the district of Kuchugur where most of the 15th century
coins had been found. According to the founder’s words, the coins (10
pieces) were dispersed in the area of 1.5 sq. m. Another group of 4 coins
was lifted within several metres from that place, but because of the dense
coating of oxide they could not be attributed and included into the
The composition of the hoard is shown in Tab.1, and Fig.1 represents their
appearance with the numbers according to the Table.
The hoard contains the coins of the first two khans ruling in the 15th
century - Shadi Bek (800-809 AH/1398-1407 AD) and Pulad (809-813
AH/1407-1411 AD). The presence of Pulad Khan’s coins in the hoard points at
the probable time of its burial.
All coin types present in the hoard are known, but because not all of them
were described in full detail and illustrated in the previous publications,
their descriptions are given here.
All the coins were struck in the southern centres of the Golden Horde, as
well as the pieces of other fixed hoards of the same period found in Lower
Povolzh’ye. There were no coins of the Bulghar (by then already named Kazan)
mint among them; the only hoard that contained up to 0.3 per cent of those
coins was a great one found in 1867 at Shareny Bugor. This fact must serve
an additional confirmation to the opinion that early in the 15th century the
Volga Bulgharia and Lower Povolzh’ye represented separated economic regions
of the Golden Horde.
COIN GATHERINGS ON THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL ROUTE
OF THE KHOREZM EXPEDITION IN 1966
N. N. Ivanov
In July 1966 the archaeological route headed by Dr. Hist. E. E. Nerazik was
blazed along the left bank of Amu Darya.
Near Kunya Uaz - 8 sps.
The longest stand on the route and the largest number of numismatic pickings
was made on a site near Adak (84 coins, including broken pieces). On the
other sites the coin finds were distributed as follows:
At Yarbekir Qala - 8 sps.
At Aqcha Gelin - 6 sps.
In the fortress of Adak - 6 sps.
The earliest coins (dirham and fals, 16 sps.) belong to the reign of
Khorezmshah Muhammad b. Takish. The rest are 13-14th century coins of the
Golden Horde. Almost all of them fit well to the system suggested by G. A.
Fedorov-Davydov, but some specimens, probably of better condition than those
at the disposal of the named author, allow to make certain corrections in
interpreting the coin legends and images, which actually has been done in
the present article. It contains more accurate reconstructions and drawings
of the coin dies of several types from the finds of the Khorezm expedition.
The catalogue published above is based on the through (continuous) numbering
of coin finds. For better comparison, the reconsrtuctions made by G. A.
Fedorov-Davydov (marked with I) are placed side by side with my own drawings
(resp. with II).
The other part of the article is a catalogue of coins found in the course of
the expedition. Jujid coins comprise the bulk of its content, but there are
also coins struck under the Afrighid and Anushteginid rulers of Khorezm,
Timur and Timurids.
A HOARD OF GOLDEN HORDE DIRHAMS OF THE FIRST HALF
OF THE XIVth CENTURY FROM TATARSTAN
V. P. Lebedev, O. V. Trostiansky
In January 1998 a small bag with silver coins (ca 60 pcs.) was brought to
one of the antiquity boutiques of Kazan, allegedly from Bolgar. The review
of the set showed that it consisted of the Golden Horde dirhams of the first
half of the 14th century, one foreign piece resembling the coinage of the
Mongols of Persia, and up to 10 almost entirely effaced dirhams. One can
suppose that the mentioned complex a hoard of the Golden Horde coins found
in Tatarstan, probably in the vicinity of the town of Bolgar. To investigate
the hoard, we obtained from it 20 genuine samples and 5 pencil rubbings.
Table 1 presents all important properties of the specimens we have seen, as
well as their attribution.
Fig.1 contains the reconstructions of some coins from the hoard; to achieve
the completeness of type appearance, similar coins from private collections
have been used. The numbers of the reconstructions correspond to those in
In Figs. 1/1 and 1/3-5 we present the reconstructions of all dirhams struck
at Khorezm, encountered in the part of the hoard we saw. Two dirhams dated
720 AH (Tab.1, Nos.3 and 4) have been struck with the same couple of dies,
whereas a piece with the lost date (Tab.1, No.5) represents a different die
combination. Many coins of Khorezm with various dates have been published
without pictures, so we could not determine the issue date of dirham No.5.
The second group of reconstructions (Fig.1/18-21) embraces all dirhams from
the examined part of the hoard that have been minted in the name of Jani Bek
at Gülistan. The only picture of one similar specimen has been published in
a Ch. M. Fraehn’s work.
THE COINS OF MOKHSHI FROM THE FUNDS OF THE BOLGAR
STATE HISTORIC-ARCHITECTURAL RESERVE
J. G. Muhametshin
It is commonly known that copper coins, as a rule, did not play the
principal role in the economic and monetary relations of the states, meeting
for the most part the requirements of local market. In the Golden Horde,
besides its capital, copper was struck episodically at the mints of Bolgar
(Bulghar), Gulistan, Mokhshi, Haji Tarkhan, Ukek and some other ones.
Comparing the coin finds from Bolgar and the both Sarays shows that more
than half of the copper coin finds in Bolgar belong to the production of
Saray and New Saray mints, whereas the finds of Bulghar coins in Lower
Povolzh’ye are rather sporadic. On analyzing the coins from Narovchat, A. A.
Krotkov came to a conclusion that the copper coins produced in situ did not
use to leave their native town. An attempt is made in the present article to
evaluate the verifiability of such supposition for the monetary circulation
of Bulghar and Mokhshi, the two provincial centres of the Golden Horde.
The publication also contains a catalogue of coins struck at Mokhshi from
the collection of the Bolgar State Historic-Architectural Reserve, supplied
with their detailed description and drawing pictures.
THE COIN CIRCULATION OF THE GOLDEN-HORDE TOWN OF BELJAMEN
V. B. Klokov, V. P. Lebedev
The authors of the present publication obtained for investigation coin
gatherings of 1997 from the site Vodianskoe, partly delivered by a resident
of village Dubovka to "Antikvariat" shop and partly borrowed from regional
students. The total of those gatherings comprises 51 silver dirhams and 1311
copper puls. A detailed typological and metrological analysis of the cited
coin complex forms the first part of the work. Besides, a large group of
Jujid coins, found in various years on the site Vodianskoe and not
represented among the gatherings of 1997, was exposed in a number of private
collections in Volgograd. Their descriptions are placed in the second part
of the article.
The coin material collected from a certain site, so numerous and analyzed in
so much detail, is subject to publication for the first time. Alongside with
coin descriptions, the article contains the reconstructions of all coin
types, and in some cases coin dies too. A serious analysis of the material
under study is expounded.
The number of copper puls in the Vodianskoe complex is many times more than
all before known coins taken together, so their study has allowed to expose
a lot of new and unexpected features of the coin production and money
circulation in the Golden Horde, and Beljamen in particular.
The integrated complex includes 93 types and 66 variants of Jujid puls, of
which 20 types and 40 variants have not yet been published. Although copper
coins used to serve the local circulation in the towns of the Golden Horde,
the Beljamen finds originate from 13 different mints. Like in the dirham
group, the metropolitan copper mintage prevails in number of pieces (92 per
cent), but regarding the type variety, the quota of provincial coinage
almost reaches a half (48 per cent). The most active penetration into the
market of Beljamen is fixed for the puls of Mokhshi (10.1 per cent types),
Azaq and Khorezm (8.7 per cent each); on the other hand, the copper
production of Bulghar, rather abundant in the first third of the 14th
century, as well as that of Majar and Shahr al-Jadid in the 60-70s, seems to
have never reached this town.
Coins bearing the mint name similar to ‘adil (?) are encountered with on
the site Vodianskoe only; this fact, to our opinion, must point at their
Another peculiarity of the monetary circulation in Beljamen is the presence
of an appreciable part (7.5 per cent) of crude imitations of the puls of the
1st half of the 14th century, which are seldom met on other sites. The
imitations of the puls of the 1330s are not numerous. Judging by the shapes
of coin flans, they have been struck in the same technique as the original
types, namely on pieces cut off from copper wires or thin rods. The latter
allows us to suppose that these crudely made coins have not been imitations,
for they could be the "official" emission of a given mint, but produced by
some inexperienced engravers enlisted for the needs of rapid increase in the
volume of copper coin production.
The presence of copper puls with overstrikes among the coin finds is also
characteristic for the majority of the sites, including Vodianskoe. Both of
the studied groups together contain 151 pieces, stamped with 7 kinds of
overstrikes. The most numerous of them, ‘adil and a tripod tamgha, have
most probably been produced at Beljamen. Two thirds of overstruck puls
belong to the time of Toqtamish; the latest types with date indications show
795 and 799 AH. Although copper puls without overstrikes in general date
back only to the 14th century (from the undated emissions of Toqta up to 799
AH/1397 AD), still the considerable number of overstamped specimens
originally dated with the 790s, including the same 799 AH, must witness with
certainty that Beljamen has survived after its destruction in 1395 AD, and
the life there has been going on some time in the early 15th century.
THE DRAWINGS OF LEAD SEALS FROM THE ARCHIVE OF THE GORODETS REGION STUDENT
Y. K. MIATOV
PRIMARY ANALYSIS OF IMAGES ON THE PUBLISHED LEAD SEALS
V. P. Lebedev, V. N. Dunin
Yuri Konstantinovich Miatov was a collector of material monuments of the
history of Gorodets. The main supplier of exhibits to his collection was the
Volga River: during regular spring flash floods it washed away the high hill
of the town that had served an embankment for the Gorodets fortress in the
13-14th centuries, and exposed a great number of remnants, the most numerous
among them being lead seals, silver and copper coins.
Yuri Konstantinovich passed away in a tragic accident, his house was burnt
down and most of his collection of lead seals perished in the fire. Quite
accidentally, his young disciple V. N. Dunin preserved a part of seals and
two tracing-papers with the drawings of 87 various types and variants of
images registered on those monuments of sphragistics by Y. K. Miatov. The
preserved samples have been among 1000 pieces handed over by V. N. Dunin to
the State Hermitage, and their pictures are published in this article.
Unfortunately, we do not know the exact number of specimens that have been
decorated with the images published here; it estimates approximately within
some 600-800 samples. Paying homage to the memory of Y. K. Miatov, we place
his drawings in Tab. without any alterations. The type classification of the
images elaborated by him has been preserved too.
SEVEN UNPUBLISHED COINS OF THE CRIMEAN KHANATE
OF THE 15-17th CENTURIES
V. P. Lebedev
Very soon we are to celebrate the centennial of publishing the fundamental
work by O. F. Retovski Die Munzen der Girei that has been brought to light
in "Òðóäû Ìîñêîâñêîãî Íóìèçìàòè÷åñêîãî Îáùåñòâà" in 1901-1905. However, if
we remember that the edition of his Corpus of Crimean Khanate coins has
commenced first in "Òðóäû Òàâðè÷åñêîé Ó÷åíîé Àðõèâíîé Êîìèññèè" as early as
1893, we must recognize this jubilee as already accomplished. The
completeness of types, variants and die varieties of the coins of the Girei
dynasty represented in that catalogue was so absolute that up to the most
recent time there emerged no serious printed additions to it. But a whole
century being not so short a term for numismatics, there has been
accumulated, at least in the private collections of Russia and Ukraine, a
certain stock of new Crimean coins that are not represented in O. F.
The present article presents a publication of seven unedited Girei coins of
the 15-17th centuries from private collections in Simferopol, Sevastopol,
Feodosia, as well as Moscow, Kovrov and Dzerzhinsk.
THE HOARDS OF KUFIC DIRHAMS
P. N. Petrov, V. A. Kalinin
The publication is dedicated to eight hoards of Kufic coins found in various
times in Caucasia, Belorussia, Russia and Turkmenistan. Each hoard is
described separately and to the different extent of detalization, as minute
as the concrete material allows it.
1. A hoard of Umayyad coins from Transcaucasia
2. One more hoard of the early 9th century
3. The second hoard of Kufic and Sasanian coins Vyzhigshi-II
4. A hoard of the 10th century dirhams Anonymous-2
5. A hoard of dirhams of the mid-10th century from the Minsk district
6. An early 10th century hoard of Kufic coins from the village of Luzhki
7. A small hoard of Kufic coins from the vicinity of Murom
8. A hoard of late Samanid dirhams from Turkmenistan
USING THE MACROANALYSIS IN THE STUDY OF THE HOARDS
OF KUFIC COINS OF THE 8-12th CENTURIES, ESTIMATING ITS APPLICABILITY AND
P. N. Petrov
Since lately, the numismatic literature witnesses more works dedicated to
the comparative analysis of coin hoards and the study of coin silver streams
in the past; attempts are made to obtain information from the results of
such analysis. Among the problems examined most intently, the chronological
composition of the hoards and its comparative analysis are discerned in a
series of articles by A. V. Fomin.
The present article considers the restrictions put on A. V. Fomin’s
statistical analysis by the specific nature of numismatic objects, as well
as the applicability of the cited method to the processing of hoard objects
It is worth noting that the macroanalytic work on hoards commenced by A. V.
Fomin is by no means easy and simple, for the trial-blazer is often unable
to take account of every detail in the new way of research. And though his
results must be recognized extremely relative (especially regarding the
estimation of the state of coin flows in accordance with their periodic
diversification), rather emotional than conclusive, still the sound sense
attends this method, it only needs to be recomprehended and applied.
Criticizing is always easier than creating something by oneself, but no
truth is born without criticism.
A GROUP OF COINS FROM A HOARD CONTAINING THE 11th CENTURY COINS OF
B. D. Kochnev
In issue 1 of Äðåâíîñòè Íèæåãîðîäñêîãî Ïîâîëæüÿ P. N. Petrov has published
the information about a hoard found somewhere in the south of Middle Asia
around 1991. Judging by its content, the place of its find could be either
the Surkhandarya district of Uzbekistan, or the adjoining territory of
Tajikistan. The primary volume of the hoard ought to number several
thousands of coins, since it filled a big bucket, but then it was dispersed
among the people. Collector from Moscow A. A. Koifman managed to review
about 400 dirhams from the hoard and determine its dynastic and
chronological composition (Qarakhanid, Ghaznavid, Seljuq, possessors of
Saghaniyan, 414-435 AH/1025-1044 AD). P. N. Petrov examined 7 coins from the
same hoard and published them in an article with descriptions, photo
pictures of the best preserved specimens and a brief review of the
historical situation laying beneath the mentioned numismatic monuments.
1. Anonymous. [Saghaniyan, between 418-23 AH/1027-32 AD]
Late in 1997 collector V. F. Tsapin (Samarkand) acquired 20 similar
dirhams, but he could not obtain any information about their origin. As
follows from looking through those samples, they could comprise another part
of the same hoard, or they were part of another treasure, very close to the
former one in content. Anyhow, the named group has turned to contain the
pieces so curious that the whole group certainly deserves a publication and
greatest attention. The composition of the examined coins is as follows:
2. Muhtajid? Abu’l-Qasim. [Saghaniyan], 42[4-8] AH/1032-37 AD
3. Qarakhanid. Tafghaj Khan Ibrahim b. Nasr. Saghaniyan, 2 AH/1040-41
4. Ghaznavid. Mawdud b. Mas’ud. Termez, 433 AH/1041-42 AD
5-6. Mint? Date? Coins like No.4, but with lost issue data.
7-8. Seljuqid. Chaghry Bek Dawud b. Mika’il. Saghaniyan, 435 AH/1043-44
9. Mint? Date? Coin like No.7-8, but in bad condition.
10. [Chaghry Bek Dawud] and Shams al-D[awla]. [Saghaniyan], 435
11. Dynasty? Ruler? Saghaniyan, date?
12-20. [Saghaniyan (?)], date?
The analytic part of the article discerns the numbered coins in the context
of historical events in Saghaniyan, the reconstruction of which is to the
considerable extent connected with and depending on the studied numismatic
VASSAL COINAGE OF THE 70s OF THE 11th CENTURY -
THE FINAL STAGE OF THE MONETARY SYSTEM OF THE
SHADDADID EMIRATE OF GANJA
Y. V. Studitsky, V. P. Lebedev
Coins of Shaddadid emirs following Shawur I were unknown until recently. In
1997 a small complex of black base silver coins with the names of Seljuq
sultans was brought to Moscow from Armenia. 30 pieces from that group were
handed to us for detailed study, the results of which are reflected in the
Fig.1 contains drawing reconstructions of the elicited types; the die
varieties in these pictures have been ignored in order to achieve a more
complete type appearance.
Only two of the distinguished types (Nos.2-3) can be confidently related to
the coinage of Fadl II b. Shawur (459-466 AH/1067-1073 AD). For better
convenience, all anthroponymic data of all eight coin types, as well as the
similar information from the dirhams of Shawur I, are collected in Tab.1.
Two types of dirhams of Fadl II (Nos.2-3) have been first to represent the
name of Sejuqid sultan Alp Arslan. Type 4 has not preserved (or actually has
devoid of) any of the three possible proper names, whereas the date of the
dirham (466 AH) coincides with the moment of deposing Fadl II from the
throne by Fadl III. It is reasonable to suppose that type 4 has been struck
yet under Fadl III. Judging by the presence of caliph al-Qa’im’s name in the
legends of type 5, the dirham could not be issued after 467 AH, most
probably, under Fadl III as well. The following type 6 struck under new
sultan Malik-shah in 466-467 AH; on the coins of Fadl III the title is
absent at all, and instead of the name, a laqab is placed - Shams
‘Sun of the kings’. Another type 7 struck between 465-467 AH actually has no
reference to the Shaddadid ruler. Finally, type 8 has been struck after 467
AH in the names of the next caliph al-Muqtadi and sultan Malik-shah. Again,
there are no traces of the existence of Shaddadid emir in the inscriptions
on the coin. It is probable that this type is already a purely Seljuq coin,
because since 468 AH Arran has become a possession of Seljuq general Sau
Tegin and the Shaddadid Emirate of Ganja has ceased to exist.
ALMATY - THE 13th CENTURY MINT
V. N. Nastich
The article represents a broadened and illustrated version of the author’s
paper delivered to the "Bartol’dovskie chteniya" conference in 1993; the
English (abridged) edition see in: ONS Newsletter No. 155, Winter 1998, p.
13-15. It concerns the recent discovery of silver coins struck at Almatu
(nowadays’ Almaty, or Alma-Ata of late) in the epoch of the Mongol dominion.
The description of two dirhams, each bearing two tamghas (one of common use
on many Chaghatayid coins of the 13th century, and the other very special,
never met with before), is accompanied with detailed philological and
historical analysis of these unique specimens. The clearly inscribed mint
name on one of them, together with some extra information, leaves no doubt
in their correct topographic attribution. As to their mint dates, the exact
year indications are given neither with traditional Arabic wording nor with
figures, but by means of so-called "Abjad" chronograms ,
which can be deciphered as 684 AH/1285 AD and 685 AH/1286 AD respectively.
Based on these coins, we can state the existence of one more Chaghatayid
mint, in addition to the 16 known and at least two unpublished ones, which
were either reactivated or newly established to provide enough mintage for
carrying out the monetary reform initiated by Mas'ud Beg in the Chaghatayid
khanate about 670/1271-72. In the aspect of cultural history, the coins of
Almatû make a certain contribution to the study of sophisticated Mongol
heraldry, representing a new sign of property. Another important aspect of
the coins under study is the unusual and seldom encountered "Abjad" manner
of dating: once fixed in the Arabic-written coin legends dating back to the
13th century, it provides further researchers a reliable precedent for
solving similar problems they might face in making out other mediaeval
The discovery of the Chaghatayid mint of Almatû, alongside with its
paramount numismatic importance, allows us to deduce more inferences of
certain historical value. First of all, the name placed on the coin
from the late 13th century can be actually taken for the earliest known
record of this toponyme applicable to today’s Almaty that must be regarded
as its firsthand, legal and plenipotentiary inheritor. Hence it becomes
reasonable that the town bearing this name is not 145 years old, as it
follows from its official chronology, but its history can be dated back to
at least 715 years, as testified by the new exactly dated numismatic
sources, the most ancient for the moment and well worthy of confidence.
THE WESTERN KOPEKS WITH THE NAMES OF IVAN IV
AND FEODOR IVANOVICH
(TO THE PROBLEM OF THE MINTING PLACE)
O. V. Trostiansky
In spring of 1998, sorting out a large number of Russian wire coins taken
off from tukhya (a little cap, detail of Chuvash national garment), I found
two coins with the name of Ivan IV and letters ê/õõ under the rider’s image.
On the thorough study of a better-preserved sample, I managed to reconstruct
the die details that have not been described in the modern literature. The
diameter of the studied specimen (see Fig.1) is 22-25 mm, the weight (taking
account of a pierced hole and an erasure in the upper part) = 0.495 g; the
die correlation is exactly (!).
I consider probable that the emergence of western kopeks did not result
from the activity of the British Company (to A. S. Melnikova’s opinion), but
from the situation that had arisen in the Baltic region after the Pluss
armistice of 1583.
RUSSIAN SILVER COINS OF 1825 - THE FIRST COINS OF NIKOLAY I
V. A. Malanin
Russian silver coins of 1825 with initials ÍÃ under the eagle belong to the
outstanding monuments of the 1825 Interregnum. All catalogues of Russian
coins, both old and modern, refer this coinage of the St. Petersburg mint to
the reign of Alexander I. Meanwhile it turns to have been the first minting
production of Nikolay I, which is proved in the article.
HTML-compilation by V.Belyaev